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  • Phishing.
  • Extortion over the internet.
  • A data breach has occurred.
  • Theft of one's identity.
  • Harassment.

Cyber crime is a broad term used to describe the unauthorized access of computers and network devices, the use of tools to commit similar acts, in order to obtain data or money. Most cyber crime crimes are committed by hacking, which involves gaining access to confidential information. However, there are many other types of cyber crime as well that include identity theft and fraud.

  • Using email to send threatening communications is punishable under Section 503 of the IPC.
  • Sending derogatory messages via email is punishable under Section 499 of the IPC.
  • Forgery of electronic records is punishable under Section 463 of the IPC.
  • Sec 420 IPC applies to bogus websites and cyber crimes.
  • Email spoofing is punishable under Section 463 of the IPC.
  • Sec. 383 IPC - Web-Jacking
  • Sec. 500 IPC - E-mail Abuse

Ian Murphy, better known as Captain Zap, was the first person to be found guilty of cybercrime, which occurred in 1981. He had hacked the American telephone company's internal clock in order to allow users to make free calls during peak hours.

Cyber crimes such as hacking and data theft are a public health issue. The economic cost of cyber crime is estimated to be $500 billion dollars in 2013. The majority of these crimes are perpetrated by organized criminal groups who exploit the vulnerabilities of our online platforms.

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