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  • Normalization
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Normalization is the process of reducing redundancy in a database. Redundancy in the database, such as duplicate records, can cause anomalies such as updating or deleting records that are not needed. Normal forms are used to eliminate redundancy and improve the performance of the database. There are various types of normalization in DBMS: 1. First Normal Form: Client-side relationships and constraints must be denormalized to storage-side relationships and constraints. 2. Second Normal Form: A table is said to be in second normal form if it satisfies the requirements of first normal form and every column in the table is determined by a candidate key. 3. Third Normal Form: A table is said to be in third normal form if it satisfies the requirements of second normal form and no non-key attributes depend on other non-key attributes.

A relation is in 1NF if it contains an atomic value. 2NF. A relation will be in 2NF if it is in 1NF and all non-key attributes are fully functional dependent on the primary key. 3NF. A relation will be in 3NF if it is in 2NF and no transition dependency exists.

Normalization is a process of organizing data in a database. It is used to ensure that the data is consistent and remains so as it grows. A database’s structure may be normalized or denormalized. The first step in normalization is to identify repeating information and then move that information into its own table, with fields that will allow for flexibility in the future. A second step may involve deduplicating records, which reduces repeating values within a field. The final step is to ensure that all tables are linked together by primary keys

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