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Android Architecture and Its Components 


In this Video Tutorial, we will see what is Android Architecture and what are its essential layers and android architecture components. Firstly Android Architecture is planning, designing, and constructing the process and product which can give us a physical structure achievement. In simple language, if I want to build a house, what will be its structure, how many rooms will be there, where will the kitchen be, where will the drawing-room be, where will the balcony be, where will be the storeroom, so this all needs to be decided and also what will be the design needs to be decided.


Additionally, when we talk about Android Architecture, there are 5 important layers inside it, which we have to see in a little detail.


So following are those layers -

  1. Application
  2. Android Framework
  3. Native Libraries
  4. Android Runtime
  5. Linux Kernel
  6. HAL (part of Linux Kernel)

1. Linux Kernel


First, we will see Linux Kernel, which is the base of Android Architecture. So we’ll see what it works and what is its functionality. The basic work of a kernel is to balance between hardware and software. Precisely, when we have an application in our phone when we run it, it is CPU occupied, and it will occupy the memory of our device, so all these are the work are performed by Kernels like CPU management, memory management, and device management.


Now when we are talking about the Kernel, let us see what functionality it performs

  • Hardware abstraction
  • Memory Management Programs
  • Security Settings
  • Power Management Software
  • Other Hardware Drivers (drivers are programs that control hardware devices) like Cameras.

2. Android Architecture Libraries


Android has a wide library with different types of components available like -

  • Surface Manager
  • Media framework
  • SQLite
  • OpenGL | ES
  • Free type
  • Web Kit
  • SGI
  • SSI
  • Libc

A simple example is that we have to create a musical application, in which we can play songs and also we want to play the radio in it, then for this, we will use Media Framework Library, in which we will get all the methods directly related to the media.


And another example, if we want to create a game, we have to store data for that, then for this, we will use SQLite, in which we can create a database to store our data.


3. Android Runtime


To execute any Android application we need Android runtime. This runtime provides us with DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine), this DVM is a very important thing because it creates a '.dex' file, and it takes a lot less memory, now exactly we'll see how this DVM works.


First of all, our Java file which we will call '.class' file is converted to '.dex' file with the help of the DX tool and after that, with the help of the AAPT tool, we will get an APK file.


After Google's Lollipop version of Android, here they have introduced a new concept 'ART' which is called Android Runtime Environment. This ART is a new type of virtual machine, in the Lollipop version DVM has been replaced with ART. In the comparison of ART and DVM, in ART we will get many benefits, such as its performance is good, its compilation is fast, garbage collection is also heavily improved, and most important is a concept inside it which is 'AOT' (Ahead Of Time), which will compile our entire application together so that its speed is very much increased.


4. Application Framework Layer


When we create any application, the application framework plays a very important role. Because this is a place where we design how our application will be and how we will achieve that purpose. This program manages the basic function of our phone. Like we can say that we have to use a telephone manager to make a call, or to use a location manager to find a location. That is, what kind of application we have and what we will achieve by this, we decide in this layer.


For Example - If I want to make a call application, then I have to use Activity Manager to create this call application, as well as telephone manager, so the application framework is very important for us.


5. Application Layer


Now the top layer that comes by which our Android Architecture completes is 'Application'. Application is one thing with which we interact directly, the user identifies the phone with it, in any phone, some applications are preinstalled and then the user installs the application accordingly.



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