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Course Content


Indirect speech (also reported speech or indirect discourse) is a grammatical method for communicating the content of another utterance without directly quoting it in linguistics. Jill said she was coming is an example of indirect speech, whereas Jill said "I'm coming" is an example of direct conversation.

In an indirect speech, the pronoun changes depending on whether the speaker is addressing himself or a third party. We can learn this with few examples to make it clearer: "I cannot be with you," George stated flatly. Indirect: George stated that he would be unable to accompany me.

narration is the act of speaking or writing about someone or something. In literature, it is often a story told by one person about another.

External Narrations: Internal narration: Mixed Narratives

Making use of indirect speech

  • Reporting verbs such as "to ask," "to say," and "to tell" are commonly used to create indirect speech, and the word "that" is frequently used to express what was said. "My mother stated he hadn't come back in months," for example.

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