Welcome to Learnvern.
So, guys we will start here, Interview Question and Answer.
Clear? So, here interview question and answer.
This means in software testing the questions that are asked in interview.
Those questions and their answers, I am going to tell you here.
Clear? Only these if you do then in Software Testing, what is the benefit that you will get is whenever you go for an interview, this will come in handy to you.
So, the 1st question in this is from SDLC.
If you go for any Software Testing interview, they will 1st check whether you know about the life cycle? Are you aware about the life cycle? Whenever there is a project, how will they do the project? That will be in SDLC form itself.
It is not be that they will give you work in different forms.
So, here in SDLC form how it should be? So, it is here that SDLC is a structure imposed on the development of software product that defines the process for planning, implementation, testing, deployment, and on-going maintenance and support.
So, this is its definition Correct? This is SDLC definition.
Anything you properly structuralize there because the lifecycle word comes anywhere, in any place, when lifecycle word comes, you have to always sequentially elaborate it.
So, its structure is made, it has a process.
Correct? So, what do you have to do there? You have to give an answer there.
So, this definition you have to 1st elaborate.
Maybe they can remove one more question for you.
If you know about SDLC, you also know about its phases.
They can also go round in circle and question you about SDLC process or they can ask you the steps and stages of SDLC.
So, guys, there are in total 6 stages or phases in it.
Which are there on your screen.
Call it requirement collection or requirement gathering, Analysis, Designing, Coding, Testing and Maintenance, in total these are the 6 phases.
But you will have to tell all these 6 phases sequentially.
You have to answer here sequentially.
Clear? Here your entire answer will be based on lifecycle, which should be sequential and structured based.
Clear? So, this was SDLC, software development life cycle.
The other question that can come in front of you.
What is the Spiral Model? So, guys, since the time the Spiral Model has come in the market, since the time it has been launched.
It had made a big boom in the market.
It was very famous in the market.
Correct? So, here how will your answer be based on Spiral Model? Spiral Model is very widely used in the software industry as it is in sync with the natural development process.
This is called the natural development process of any product i.e., learning with maturity also involves minimum risk for the customer as well as development firms.
So, guys what will happen in this, your developer and your customer, the risk for both of them will be reduced.
Because the thing that you have made there, you have even told the customer about it that in this way the product or the functionality has been developed.
And in this it is called as the natural development process.
Why, this is called natural development process? Because, when you perform anything, here why is it seen in natural form? Because the requirement came, you did an analysis on it, you did the coding, testing and you showed it to the customer.
And the customer again gave the requirement, this cycle will keep on going there but some day it will be completed.
This is the main work of Spiral Model.
Because it gets divided in 4 components.
Planning, this is a 1st component, risk analysis, 2nd component.
3rd is the engineering and the 4th one in here is customer evolution.
In these 4 parts the Spiral works.
So, we have to say there is minimum risk for customer as well as development firms.
Next comes here Agile Model.
Agile Model is used the most in the market in reality.
Why? When there are big projects in the market whose dead lines are not known, when it will end.
All those models are been worked on Agile.
So how will you elaborate the definition at the time of the interview? Agile SDLC model is a combination of iterative and incremental process model with the focus on process adaptability and customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of working software product.
Clear? So, this Agile is SDLC model but in that the work happens in combination.
In what? Iterative and incremental, with the mix of both the work is done.
That means that for example if you make any building, 1st the ground floor is made, then the 1st floor is made then the 2nd floor is made.
Then you think that when you will make 3rd floor in it, then 2nd floor and ground floor, how many times it will be used? So, there is iterative there and it will keep on increasing, 3rd floor is made, if the 4th floor is made, it will be incremental.
So, 3rd, 2nd, 1st and the ground floor, how many more times it will be used.
So, the buildup of iterative and incremental process, that means that the work happens in mix up.
So, what is the main focus on? Process adaptability.
That means that any process that comes, you adapt that and give so much of satisfaction to the customer in that, so much so that the product should be properly launched.
Customer should say that now the product is ready with me and I don’t have to do any changes in it.
That is the kind of satisfaction.
Customer will say it twice, thrice or four times.
You have to make the process work smoothly.
So, this is Agile’s work.
Clear? Then comes here SRS.
Again, this is the best question.
A lot of time it has been asked in the interview.
SRS, what is the meaning of SRS? The full form of SRS is Software Requirement Specification.
It is a complete description of the behavior of the system to be developed.
This is the entire definition that you have to elaborate, complete description.
That means that any software or application has come to you, to be made.
Its entire information should be there with you.
Second with its behavior.
Whatever thing you are making in the system.
It should be there with you with the entire behavior.
This is the definition part but they can even ask you in a twisted question.
How many types of requirements are there in SRS? So, guys, there are 3 types of requirements, Customer, Functional and Non- Functional.
So, the customer’s requirement…as whose is the project? It is of the customer.
So, the customer will give his own requirement, will give its own requirement which we want to insert or make in the project or develop, that they will give there.
So, I want his requirement.
Along with that I also want the functional requirement.
That means the mandatory thing that is there.
Clear? The mandatory thing also I want in this.
That means what happens in it, the functional requirement that is there, that should be easily performed in it.
Then comes non-functional, which is not there in our hand.
Like speed, scalability, stability, all these things are non-functional, which is not there in our hand.
Clear? So, there will be non-functional requirement in it as well.
All these 3 are the part of SRS, which means that they are the part of the requirement.
So, that thing you will have to tell there.
Clear? Next thing that comes to you is, what is Software Testing? This is again, the biggest question, which in your interview, you are going to give interview for Software Testing.
So, this question can also be asked to you that what is a Software Testing? Software Testing is a process that is used to identify the correctness, completeness and the quality of developed computer software.
It means, for example you are testing, in testing you have to take care of 2 to 3 things.
The thing that you are testing, you have identified in it the defect.
That defect you have to send to the developer and get it corrected.
Second in it is completeness.
Clear? What will be the 2nd one in it? Completeness.
So, what will be there in completeness? How many ever customers functional requirement is there, you will have to complete that here.
And the third word used here is quality.
So, guys if you see the entire course of Learnven, you have read it properly.
So, guys you will automatically get quality in it.
Why, how all this testing happens? Clear? In the quality it should be completed time to time, 2nd it should be there in the budget, 3rd is the completeness that you talked about.
All these things would be there, only then the testing will be properly complete here.
Clear? Next comes here Software Testing Activities.
That means that this question can be asked to you in a twisted form as well.
What the process in Software Testing? Clear? If I hire you, which all activities you will do after coming here? So, you are a tester, what will you do after coming here, how will you do the testing? So, that activity is there here.
First of all, I will do the planning here and along with that how it is controlled, that also I will see, checking result, choosing test condition, evaluation completion criteria, finalized and closer activity will happen here.
All these activities, you have to keep in mind at the time of testing.
Clear? At that time you have to keep it in mind.
Clear? So, planning and controlling, checking results, choosing test conditions, evaluation completion criteria and finalized and closer.
So, as per this your entire process or activity will be performed.
Clear? So, what will you do after the activity? So, it will come here, they will ask you a question, why is testing needed? Why should you do the testing? What will happen if you don’t do it? Guys, the thing that will be checked, will be checked by a human.
Human will commit a mistake.
So, the 1st point that has been mentioned here is that human make mistakes all the time and some of those mistakes are unimportant but some of them are expensive and dangerous.
So, prevent this mistake and improve the quality of product testing is necessary.
In this what happens? For example, you can also explain it with an example.
For example, you test any web or mobile application.
Correct? And in that a payment option comes.
And in the payment option you have not done the testing, what will happen? If someone puts a correct password or a wrong password at the time of the payment or he puts the OTP.
Even then the money gets deducted from it.
How is it possible? If the human who has developed it, if he has not got it checked properly then for me what is that thing, it is a mistake.
It is even dangerous as the money is getting deducted from my account.
It has also become expensive for me.
So, even there the testing is necessary.
Clear? So, for all the testing there becomes necessary.
Next, 7 key principles.
Correct? 7 key principles, how will you see in these 7 key principles? They can twist the question and ask you what are the key elements? What are the 7 aspects of the software testing? These principles that are there, they can even ask you to tell the points.
Testing shows presence of defect, exhaustive testing is impossible, early testing, defect clustering, pesticide paradox, testing is context dependent, absence of error fallacy.
What will these do to you? They can even ask it separately.
Why testing shows presence of defects? As there is not a person that has come and said that I have done the testing and now you find out any defect in it and show me.
There is no person like that.
Clear? So, testing shows presence of defect, no one is able to prove it till now.
That there will be no defect that will come from it now.
So, they have written there testing shows presence of defect.
Exhaustive Testing is impossible.
Why? The thing that you are thinking about since the start, precondition wise, that is not possible that it will be complete.
So, we say there that why do not test everything.
Why? This is the reason for it.
Clear? Then comes Early Testing.
Which means when to start software testing? This kind of a question can also come to you.
Early testing is like, when you sleep the mobile alarm wakes you up.
You are in deep sleep.
So, that is Early testing.
Defect Clustering, clustering means group.
You have a laptop; a virus comes inside the laptop.
How does it happen? There is a virus in the pen drive.
I attached it to my laptop.
So, that virus spread everywhere in my system.
To prevent that we install antivirus, so that it does not spread in the system.
That is a defect cluster.
Pesticide Paradox, you will feel that we are spraying medicine there.
Why? There are pesticides there.
How? So, there what is the meaning of pesticides.
You feel that I have checked once, I have checked the second time.
Third time you say that, I will not be checking it any now.
What we do is we regularly review and revise it with someone else.
That is Pesticide Paradox.
Then comes here that testing is context dependent.
Testing which is there, it is context dependent.
Clear? So how will the work happen in it? How will the work get done in it? Why do you call testing as context dependent in this? Why we call testing context dependent? Because what happens their context wise…for example, you think, you checked an e-commerce site.
If you have been told to check bank site, you will be checking it through e-commerce site.
Wrong, you have to check it thinking of it in banking form.
So, there every context is dependent.
When the e-commerce site comes the 2nd time to you, you have to check it in that manner.
Clear? And when bank’s site comes to you, you have to check it in that manner, Bank related.
Then comes here absence of Error Fallacy.
Absence of Error Fallacy.
If the customer has given me 10 requests to make.
If I give him 2 requirements.
Will the customer buy the product or project from me? He will not buy.
Fallacy means the failure.
So, guys, these kinds of questions also can be asked in detail to you.
Next comes here what is quality.
Again, this is one of the best questions they can be asking in an interview.
What is there in quality, what do we see in quality? You will have to explain the definition of the quality.
The quality means the degree to which a component, system or process, meet the specified requirement and customer needs and expectations.
Clear? So, we will call it quality here.
When I go to purchase a car, what will I see in the car 1st? What is the factor that you are thinking about in the quality, which key element, they can even ask that? Which type of aspect you have to think regarding the quality.
Whichever product we take, what do we see in it? Good design, good functionality, reliable, durable, consistency, good after sales service, value for money.
All these points we cover there, during the quality.
When we go to see any product’s quality.
What do we do there? At the time of comparison, we see all these things.
It’s designing is good, its functionality is good.
There you have to elaborate as per the key aspect.
Then comes here, what are the roles of testing.
Suppose I hire you, so which kind of role you have to serve for this company.
How will you serve for the company in this? So, the 1st thing is that you have two slogans, one is to reduce the risk and contribute to the quality.
You have to pay attention mainly on these two things.
You have to pay most of the attention on reducing the risk and contributing to the quality.
Which means that improve the quality and reduce the risk involved.
These would be your 2 roles.
Clear? And then you will be asked, what is Test Case? Test Case guys is a practical type of question.
You have been asked the definition here.
What is the meaning of Test Case? Test Case involves the set of steps, test description, preconditions, expected and actual results which can be used to verify any feature or functionality of the software application.
What happens there exactly? When you make the test case there.
Above it all the columns that we mention.
It is called test case when combined together.
Clear? What do we call it in this? It is called as Test Case.
Test is a that kind of a thing where you will get an exact answer.
If that thing is working, call it pass and it is not working, call it a fail.
Why? The value that you have put in it, put that data in it and get it checked.
So, there is test case.
You have to elaborate the definition of Test Case.
That’s it, it is over.
Then comes Scenario, scenario means what are you thinking regarding that.
A scenario is any functionality that can be tested, the functionality that has already being tested, that is called here scenario.
They can ask a twisted question, what is test condition, test possibility? All three has the same definition.
Let them ask scenario, test condition or test possibility.
Clear? Let there be any functionality which you have checked that is called the scenario.
Now the time comes of the Test Script.
That means what is the Test Script? What is the meaning of Script? Whatever is the sequential instruction, anything that you are elaborating sequentially, that is called script.
Like what is there in the movie? There is a script.
Let’s take an example.
If in the movie Bahubali, Bahubali has spoken all the details.
Then comes Rajmata, she tells all of them.
That will not work.
You will not understand the movie.
Let’s take a website.
What you have done in the website? All the functionality you have put on the home page, even if you login or not.
So how the person will login and become your user? He will not become one.
So, there a set of sequential instruction detail of how to handle a core business function.
So, this thing comes under Test Script.
Clear? Next in it is Test Analysis.
What is the analysis? Test Analysis is a process of looking at something that can be used to derive the test information.
That means that such a process that we are taking ahead to do the testing, we are taking it ahead for the testing, we are taking it ahead for the testing, that is a kind of analysis that from so many processes you picked so many processes and you went ahead with it.
So that is a kind of Test Analysis.
Clear? And now there is Traceability Matrix here.
What does Traceability Matrix mean? Trace, it comes in the word, so it should strike in your mind that they are talking about tracing.
Clear? So, you think an answer regarding that and elaborate with it.
So, what happens here? It is a kind of relationship between test cases and requirements which is shown with the help of document.
This document is also known as a Traceability Matrix.
That means your requirement, the business or user requirement that you have.
You test that with your test case or with any component.
If you are getting it exactly there, that is called trace, Traceability Matrix.
Why? Because it is in a Matrix form, row and column wise.
There you can give this answer.
Next is STLC process.
This is again one of the best questions.
Why? This is your own life cycle, Software Testing Life Cycle.
If the word Life Cycle comes again in it.
So, guys even in this, you have to give out the points sequentially.
Like you saw in SDLC, see it in STLC.
Test planning and controlling, Test analysis and design, Test implementation and execution, evaluating exit criteria and reporting, test closure activities.
What are all the things here? These are the phases of STLC and you can even call them the phases.
Like we also saw the activity.
The question that was ther in the interview, that activity question matches here.
That also you will have to tell sequentially, you should not say directly test implementation and execution, test closure activity, test planning controlling, test analysis and design.
If you say it in this manner, it will be wrong.
That answer will be wrong.
You have to give an easy answer but sequentially.
When you start to test something, in that 1st the planning should be there.
There should be proper planning Clear? And then over it controlling should be there, anything that you can take decision in.
Test analysis and design.
On the same planning and controlling you do the analysis and design the process and later you do your implementation work.
Implementation means the coding part.
No, that is a coding part but in SDLC.
But here in STLC, implementation comes, that means test case, scenario, defect report that you make, that will be implementation for you.
Because it is your life cycle.
Then execute it and in that then re-execute will also happen.
Evaluation competing criteria means what you had said in an activity, same thing will come here.
Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting and at the end Test Closure Activities.
These are the 5 phases you have to say sequentially in the interview.
Now I talked about its difference.
Like I said like there was in SDLC same way it is there in STLC.
What is the difference in the both? SDLC deals with the development/coding of the software while STLC deals with the validation and verification of the software.
In this definition the main points are covered.
In one point.
There development and coding happens and here we validate the software and verify the software.
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