An array is a data structure that stores a collection of values, typically all of the same type. The values are stored in an ordered sequence and can be accessed by their index number.
A hash is a data structure that stores key-value pairs where each key is unique and the value can be any type. Hashes are unordered and the keys cannot be accessed by their index number.
The advantages of using hashes over arrays can be summarized in the following points:
Hashes are a more efficient way of storing data
Hashes are easier to use
Hashes allow for better performance
Hashes can be used as keys to other hashes
The difference between a Ruby Hash and a Ruby Array is that the array is an ordered list of values, while the hash is an unordered set of key-value pairs.
In Ruby, you can make a Hash by using the => operator to assign a key to a value, separating the key/value pairs with commas, and enclosing everything with curly brackets.
Using the new class method: The new class method will create an empty hash, which means the hash will have no default value. hash variable = Hash.new = hash variable = hash variable = hash variable = hash variable = hash vari
Using braces: In this hash variable, = and curly braces are used. The key/value pairs are constructed between curly braces.