The xlim() and ylim() methods in R can be used to modify the axis scales of a plot. The xlim() and ylim() functions are utility functions that establish the x- and y-axis limits, respectively.
It's worth noting that all scale functions in ggplot2 are classified as one of three types: continuous scales, discrete scales, or binned scales.
The scale() function in R can be used to scale the values of a vector, matrix, or data frame. If you don't normalise the vectors or columns you're using, you'll almost always get useless results. By default, the Scale() function in R centres and/or scales the columns of a numeric matrix.
The scale() function in the R programming language centres and scales the columns of a numeric matrix. The centre argument might be a logical value or a numeric like vector. If a numeric vector is provided, the appropriate value from the centre is subtracted from each column of the matrix.
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