Course Content

Course Content


The output of the lapply() function is displayed as a list, but the output of the sapply() method is displayed as a vector. The functions lapply() and sapply() are used to perform operations on a list of objects.

The sapply() function takes a list, vector, or data frame as an input and returns a vector or matrix as an output. It returns a list object of the same length as the original set and is useful for operations on list objects. The Sapply function in R performs the same function as lapply() but produces a vector.

The apply() family is part of the R base package and contains methods for repetitively manipulating slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists, and dataframes. These routines allow you to cross data in a variety of ways without having to utilise loop constructs explicitly.

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