Course Content

Course Content


apply() takes a data frame or matrix as input and returns a vector, list, or array as output. The Apply function in R is largely used to avoid using loop structures explicitly. It is the most fundamental of all collections and can be used to a matrix. To sum a matrice over all columns is the simplest example.

The apply() family is part of the R base package and contains methods for repetitively manipulating slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists, and dataframes. These routines allow you to cross data in a variety of ways without having to utilise loop constructs explicitly.

The apply family contains functions that allow us to handle data frames, arrays, matrices, and vectors. These routines can be used instead of loops. Functions, on the other hand, are more efficient than loops since they execute faster. These routines eliminate the need to create a loop in R explicitly.

Type quit if you want to exit the help console. By supplying an argument to the help() function, we can retrieve the help documentation right from the Python console.

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