Texture mapping is a graphic design technique that involves wrapping a two-dimensional (2-D) texture map around a three-dimensional (3-D) object. As a result, the surface roughness of the 3-D item is comparable to that of the 2-D surface.
Bump mapping is a computer graphics texture mapping technique for mimicking bumps and wrinkles on an object's surface. This is accomplished by perturbing the object's surface normals and employing the perturbed normal in lighting computations.
Color Texture. This is what you'd find on most texture websites.
Normal (aka Bump) The infamous purple map!
Displacement. Used for deforming the actual mesh.
Reflection (aka Specularity)
Gloss (or Roughness)
The most frequent type of texture map is a diffuse map. It establishes the object's colour and pattern. Mapping the diffuse colour is similar to painting an image on the object's surface. There is no directing light painted in a suitable diffuse texture.
In contrast to bump mapping, normal mapping, and parallax mapping, displacement mapping uses a (procedural-) texture- or height map to create an effect in which the actual geometric position of points over the textured surface is shifted, often along the local surface.
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