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We have: dU=q+w. dS=qrevT. The fundamental thermodynamic equation for internal energy follows immediately from the first law and the Clausius principle: dU=q+w. dS=qrevT.

Thermodynamics' First Law states that energy cannot be generated or destroyed. The universe's entropy grows when a spontaneous process occurs, according to the second law of thermodynamics. The third law of thermodynamics states that at zero Kelvin, a flawless crystal has zero entropy.

The canonical variables for the fundamental equations of entropy and internal energy consist of a large number of parameters. S, U, and V are the extensive properties of a simple system, and the fundamental equations define a fundamental entropy surface S = S(U, V) in the Gibbs space of S, U, and V.

The application of thermodynamics in refrigerators is one of the most important applications of this branch of science. A refrigerator or freezer is an example of a thermal engine that uses heat energy to perform work on a substance, the food stored inside it.

Many common misconceptions are associated with this topic such as A) "Heating up a cup of coffee will make it explode"B) "Thermodynamics proves that a vacuum can't exist"C) "Thermodynamics is a branch of physics" D) "Thermodynamic's should be introduced to students at the beginning of their college career".

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