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The final keyword is a non-access modifier that prevents classes, attributes, and methods from being changed (impossible to inherit or override). When you want a variable to constantly store the same value, such as PI, the final keyword comes in handy (3.14159...). The last keyword is referred to as a "modifier."

The caller object is referred to via the reserved keyword $this in PHP. It's normally the object that the method belongs to, but it could also be another object if the method is called statically from a secondary object's context.

The new keyword is used to construct class objects.

This is used to access non-static or object variables or methods, while self is used to access static or class variables. So, when you need to access something that belongs to a class, use self, and when you need to access a property that belongs to the class's object, use $this.

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